There are about 20,000 odd species of fish and instructions on the care of these would be extremely unwieldy. Hence the basics of tank management are covered here for your help in caring for your fish and aquarium. Furry creatures on land have natural coats to protect them. However, the fish are not so fortunate. Hence the right water temperature is critical for their survival. If it is too high, their oxygen supply is diminished. Too low temperature affects their health. Therefore, it is very important to go through your instruction brochure/manual which comes with the purchase of every aquarium. You must know exactly the right gravity and temperature essential for your fish to remain healthy. Goldfish requires the temperature to be at 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Tropical fish can survive at 75 degrees Fahrenheit, or in the range 80-85 degrees Fahrenheit.
Aquarium suppliers include a thermometer and at times a heater along with the aquarium purchase, depending on your chosen fish type. Goldfish can withstand lower temperatures.
Measurement of water
An important criterion to measure water is its pH, which is essentially the sourness of the water. Again, the requirement is dependent on the fish type. For saltwater fish, the pH of the water can be in the range 7.8 to 8.3; for freshwater fish, it is 6.8 to 7.2. One needs to monitor the water pH as in water with higher pH, the ammonia produced is more. In water of too low a temperature, it becomes harmful to bacteria which denitrify growth and also to fish gills. Buffers and test kits to maintain the pH balance of fish water can be purchased. In addition, water gravity and oxygen content need to be measured which is discussed here.
What is the requirement of oxygen for the fish?
Oxygen is critical to fish survival, as for humans and land animals. Insufficient oxygen causes brain death leading to physical death. Oxygen is supplied to fish tanks by air and water, which can be increased by using pumps or air supply, which provides turbulence to create oxygen. Additionally,if you maintain coolness of water, it will increase oxygen supply.
How should you measure the gravity?
Gravity is directly proportional to the chemical amounts added to the water. Unadulterated aquarium water has an ionic gravity of 1.0. For saltwater fish, the gravity level should not go beyond 1.023. Saltwater fish illness can be reduced by maintaining the gravity at 1.017 level. Low salt volume addition to the water is beneficial for freshwater or non-marine fish particularly to reduce stress. Test kits and refactometers should be purchased to maintain the gravity level.
How to maintain aquariums for saltwater fish?
This is a little difficult question to answer. Marine environments undergo consistent changes and saltwater fish are essentially marine creatures. So the ideal habitat for them would depend on the aquarium type you have purchased for them. In a larger aquarium, it is easier to maintain saltwater fish by keeping the stability of the environment. If you are yet to purchase your saltwater fish, please note that the Damsels which is a beginners saltwater fish is, in fact, very aggressive and it does not cohabit well with other fish. On the other hand, it is easier to maintain this fish than a wide variety of other saltwater fish.
A lot of information is available on the internet where you can learn everything about fish care and aquariums.